Officially sanctioned organisations in what was once historical Circassia work almost exclusively to promote Circassian language and culture. Beneath the surface, however, young people espouse more radical ambitions — recognition of the Circassian Genocide, and creation of a united Circassia.
Thousands of people have gone missing due to the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. More than two decades have passed since a ceasefire agreement was signed, but thousands of families still do not know what happened to their loved ones.
The post-war recovery has been slow to come to eastern Abkhazia, particularly Tkuarchal District. More than 20 years have passed since the end of the Georgian–Abkhaz war, but so far, development in this part of the republic has remained all talk, and little substance.
Landmines and other unexploded ordnance plague the population of Nagorno-Karabakh 23 years after the ceasefire. For Jonik Hovhannisyan, who was a teenager when he went to war, one landmine explosion has shaped his life.
After enduring two bloody wars and under the extreme authoritarian rule of Ramzan Kadyrov, many in the Kremlin and beyond believe that Chechnya has been pacified. However, after 300 years of resistance, few in Chechnya doubt that the struggle against Russia will continue.
The return and hasty burial of the remains of Chechen fighters killed during the Second Chechen War did not bring solace to their loved ones, giving rise to questions about the fate of thousands who disappeared without a trace in the North Caucasus.